Thursday, December 5, 2019

Genetically Modified Organism free essay sample

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using techniques in genetics generally known as recombinant DNA technology. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals are all examples of organisms that have been engineered so that they contain genes from at least on unrelated organism. To create a genetically modified organism a molecule from a different source are combined into another molecule to create a new set of genes. One example of a genetically modified organism is the monkey named ANDi created in 2000. He carries the gene for a green fluorescent protein derived from Jellyfish called the GFP gene. What are three current uses of these organisms? Genetically modified organisms are mostly known for uses in agriculture and crops but are also used for pharmaceutical uses, and in biological and medical research. GMO’s are used in crops such as corn because they have been modified in a way that they have somewhat become pest resistant and herbicide tolerant. We will write a custom essay sample on Genetically Modified Organism or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In making our crops pest resistant there are less crop losses and it also helps in elimination of having to apply chemical pesticides. Crops that contain GMO’s can also be engineered to be resistant to certain herbicides with helps in preventing environmental damage by reducing the amount of herbicides needed. As far as GMO’s in pharmaceuticals and medical research, we are now able to clone the genes necessary to create insulin whereas we used to have to harvest it from the pancreas of killed animals. They are also in the process of developing edible vaccines in tomatoes and potatoes to make medicines and vaccines easier to ship, store, administer, and to make them cost less. Scientists have also created a GMO (lactase) that is added to dairy products so consumers that are lactose intolerant can still enjoy those items. What types of genetic modifications could we support and why? Genetic modifications that could be supported are in agriculture and medicine. If GMO’s in agriculture became better supported, famers would be able to create more crops that are better pest resistant. Creating more pest resistant crops would help ensure that consumers don’t consume pesticides and that run-off of agricultural wastes from excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers don’t poison water supply or cause harm to the environment. Some crops could also be modified so they are resistant to certain herbicides. This will help prevent environmental damage by reducing the amount of herbicides needed. There is also research that genetically modifying seedlings with an antifreeze gene from cold-water fish will make the seedlings more tolerant to cold temperatures. Nutrition has become a large concern in today’s world, especially third world companies. Supporting genetic modifications of certain seeds and plants can help Malnutrition. Farmers won’t have to rely on only one crop to feed a village or family and with medical advances they are working on finding a way to make beans and rice engineered to contain addition vitamins and minerals to alleviate nutrient deficiencies. With research and GMO’s in medicine we have been able to make discoveries that can help illnesses that people are diagnosed with everyday such as diabetes (creating insulin) and lactose intolerant (created lactase enzyme). Making these advances helps alleviate medical issues and can help scientists in getting closer to finding cures for larger diseases and medical issues such as cancer and AIDS. In sum, GMO has made it possible for researchers and scientists to find ways to make foods such as turnips to produce an antiviral agent, for tobacco to create antibodies that help fight against human disease, to make crops more productive and environmentally friendly, and ways to create enzymes and medicines to help cure people. What types could be reduced or eliminated and why? There is big controversy and criticism against GMO’s and if they should be allowed. One of the big ones is should cloning of animals and humans be allowed? Cloning of animals/humans means one will become genetically altered. As mentioned above the monkey ANDi is a GMO that contains a gene from a jellyfish. Although scientists have done this there is much more research that needs to be done on the benefits and safety of cloning. Much of what is done is trial and error. When it comes to someone or something’s life the subject shouldn’t be taken so lightly. There is also the controversy on should we eat genetically modified animals that were cloned for our consumption. Until there is more research and evidence that shows the safety of eating a cloned animal or drinking cloned cows milk, it is best to stay away. Who knows if the hormones given to the cows will pass through and affect humans!

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